The human brain has been described as the most complicated thing in the universe. It is capable of breathtaking feats of intellectual prowess and stunning leaps of creativity. Yet it is also capable of utterly failing us when we need it most. In the throes of a life-or-death crisis, human beings have an innate tendency to panic. Instead of taking necessary action to save our lives, many of us do the wrong thing, or nothing at all. Why? How could evolution burden us with a faculty so evidently ill-suited to the business of survival? How could an expert pilot make a beginner’s mistake?