Founded on the principles of simple, low fares and bringing all the comforts of a cozy den to air travel, JetBlue Airways has strived to make itself the premiere discount airline in the United States. JetBlue offers its customers a chance to save money while enjoying amenities such as leather seats, gourmet snacks, and live television. Also during its formidable years, the airline has sought to reduce or eliminate certain problems associated with airlines through the clever use of amenities. Leather seats, for example, are more durable and easier to clean than their cloth counterparts (and do not tend to get soaked with urine, as company founder David Neeleman discovered).
Beginning with a strong mindset of customer service, JetBlue began service in February 2000 using JFK airport in New York City as its primary hub, capitalising on being the first low-cost carrier in the market since People Express went out of business in 1986. This began an unprecedented period of growth through the early 2000’s when most other domestic carriers were circling the idiomatic drain of insolvency. In the first year, JetBlue flew two million passengers, and more than doubled that number the following year. After going public, the company utilised unprecedented newly-gained capital to acquire LiveTV, LLC, its provider of in-flight entertainment. The route network quickly expanded southward along the eastern seaboard and westward to Utah, California, and Washington, among several other large markets and began servicing point-to-point routes rather than finding another major hub.
JetBlue has consistently pushed the very idea of not sacrificing comfort and amenities for the sake of lower fares. Dunkin Donuts coffee, satellite entertainment systems, on-board email and instant messaging became the standard on all flights and other carriers have been forced to adopt practices such as these in order to stay competitive. These practices, however, were originally defined by JetBlue’s five steps: safety, caring, integrity, fun, and passion.
Safety, especially in aviation, is tantamount; millions of lives are placed in the care of a JetBlue flight crew every year, and if any one crewman fails, then the results can be catastrophic. From emergency medical assistance provided by Medaire Inc. to in-flight yoga cards courtesy of Bally Total Fitness and even being the first airline to install Kevlar doors and surveillance cameras on its airplanes in the wake of the terrorist attacks in 2001, JetBlue has maintained a policy of having every available resource for the health and safety of passengers and crew on hand in flight and on the ground.
JetBlue employs care for all of its crew members by, among other things, maintaining a no-layoff policy and a crisis fund available to any crew member in extraordinary need. The company shows integrity through its openness and ability to proactively admit to mistakes. For example, alerting customers whose personal information may have been compromised and offering to make amends through vouchers for free flights. Corporate officers have been known to personally assist anyone they have the means to as well.
Maintaining a fun work environment keeps employee morale high, especially in a traditionally high-stress setting like air travel. Impromptu airport barbeques with George Foreman grills and light-hearted punching bags help both crew and passengers let off a little steam and keep things running smoothly. High employee morale also fosters a sense of passion in crew members about what they do which leads to better customer service, happier passengers, and repeat business. As the saying goes, keep your employees happy, and they will keep your customers happy, which will keep your bottom line happy, and this is reflected in the company slogan: “You [the customer] above all.”
Despite the exponential growth and strong corporate culture, JetBlue has fallen victim to soaring fuel prices along with the rest of the industry. Even as the S&P 500 grows, the airlines, as a group, are falling sharply. Revenues have been growing consistently since 2000, rising some 185 percent through 2007, but costs have also risen—a whopping 222 percent—during the same period, owing to a 532 percent increase in the price of jet fuel from 2003 to 2007. Outside of jet fuel, operating expenses actually grew more slowly than revenues, to the tune of some 155 percent. Excluding fuel costs, this growth in operational expenses is quite consistent with a sustainable business model where the difference in revenues and operating expenses creates larger profits each year. JetBlue, historically, has not hedged fuel prices nearly as aggressively as its major competitor, Southwest Airlines. Reasoning behind this leads to a conclusion about overly conservative estimates about rising fuel costs and indecision regarding at which point to hedge those fuel prices. Despite the conservative fuel estimates, JetBlue has maintained strong financial liquidity into 2008, listing $713 million in cash and cash equivalents in the first quarterly report, but excluded $313 million in auction-rate securities. Due to a decline in the market, those securities were shifted from current assets to long-term investments. Because of such strong financial liquidity, JetBlue has been able to maintain lines of credit through 2008.
JetBlue has several strengths that differentiate it from competitors. First, JetBlue maintains a lower operating cost by owning its entertainment provider, LiveTV, by providing only snacks on flights, and operating a point-to-point route network that serves markets with lower landing fees. Over the life of the company, JetBlue has managed to build a strong brand that is associated with low fares and high service, which leads to strong customer satisfaction with the product. The airline also operates a fleet of two aircraft models that can be interchanged at the gate to provide more efficient service as well as save on maintenance costs from parts and labour training. JetBlue has also been a leader in utilising technology not only as an amenity in-flight, but to reduce costs in reservations, ticketing, and customer service calls—putting them ahead of the curve against legacy airlines and other discounters.
Somewhat offsetting their numerous strengths, JetBlue does suffer some weaknesses. Primarily, the fact that they are a relatively new company does provide some challenges in that they do not have the established presence in some markets that other carriers do—namely Delta and AirTran in Atlanta, prompting the retreat from that market. Maintaining only two different aircraft also limits passenger operations as only a maximum of 150 passengers can be carried across any route—reducing total available seat miles.
Some strategic opportunities exist within the industry for JetBlue, the first of which is route expansion. JetBlue currently operates in only 63 domestic markets, mostly in the Northeast and Caribbean with a lesser concentration on the West Coast. JetBlue is overlooking a significant segment of the travel population in the Midwest and Bread Basket states that may vacation in those more tropical destinations. In addition to expanding their own routes, JetBlue can build strategic alliances (especially to international markets) in order to provide seamless service to destinations not directly served by the airline. Also, by continuing to be a leader in technological implementation in the airline industry, JetBlue can reduce their long-term costs by investing in new innovations that will improve the efficiency of their aircraft as well as provide more services to customers both in-flight and on the ground.
The biggest threat faced by JetBlue at this time is the seemingly out-of-control fuel prices. These ever-increasing costs must be mitigated if the company is to stay solvent. In addition to soaring fuel costs, the ripple effect leads to reduced air travel spending by the general public. Economic downturns have encouraged “staycations” and other, lower-cost travel alternatives. Strong competition is also a major threat to JetBlue as fuel hedging has given Southwest Airlines and other major players a significant advantage in cost-cutting measures. Collective bargaining by union members in virtually every crew station (both in the air and on the ground) only serves to exacerbate the effect that a weak economy has on the airline. Without the ability to cut costs when and where they are needed, JetBlue management has to make difficult decisions as to violating their own “no layoff” policy.
The bargaining power of the buyer in this market is quite high, as there are several options in each market on which a potential customer can choose to fly, and the services offered are relatively standard at this point. Typically, he who offers the lowest price is going to attract the most customers. In addition, the threat of substitutes is high as well for the same reasons—undifferentiated services and proliferation of competitors. JetBlue has also set themselves in a situation where their suppliers have a high level of power as well. While maintaining a simple fleet of two aircraft eases logistics and simplifies maintenance, it puts all bargaining power in the hands of the manufacturers. Any decision to increase prices of aircraft or parts can force JetBlue to succumb to those extra costs under threat of grounding at least half of the fleet or not being able to purchase complementary aircraft. Fuel suppliers also keep a chokehold on the industry as a whole as they control the means of production (in this case, the distribution of fuel—without which, there can be no flights). Competitive rivalry is also quite high in the airline industry. There are many competitors and, such is the case in periods of slow economic activity, each one plays a price game to entice customers away from the others in order to keep their operations at sustainable levels.
One piece of good news for JetBlue, considering Porter’s Five Forces model, is that the threat of new entrants is low. There is a lot of cost and capital investment associated with starting an airline, and, especially in periods of slow economic growth, the risk often far outweighs the reward. Established brand names—often legacy airlines—tend to survive the troughs better than small startups, especially when customers are not patronising as they do during peak economic times. Loyalty programs become paramount, discouraging changeover and promoting the strong brand names that already exist in the marketplace.
JetBlue has several options available to it in order to weather the economic storm and begin a new period of growth. One option is to expand its airline partnerships. JetBlue already maintains partnerships with several international carriers, providing service to the British Isles, most of continental Europe, South Africa, the Middle East, and South America. JetBlue also has a partnership with Cape Air, providing regional service to tertiary markets in Massachusetts. JetBlue can consider partnerships with airlines providing service to Canada and Mexico to enhance their North American coverage (which is, surprisingly, lacking) as well as service to Asia and Oceania, the latter of which is quickly positioning itself as a popular tourist alternative to Hawaii or the Caribbean.
Rising fuel costs have virtually decimated the airline industry, and JetBlue’s lack of aggressive participation in fuel hedging practices compared to other airlines has put it at a significant disadvantage, forcing the company to resort to cost-cutting practices such as “tankering” and reducing overall weight to save on fuel costs. As analysts are predicting ever-rising fuel costs, JetBlue should hedge its fuel prices as soon as possible and for at least the next five (if not seven) years until a viable alternative can be developed. At the same time, JetBlue should use its prowess for ingenuity to design lighter seating materials and other weight-saving measures to reduce overall fuel on flights. Investments in companies developing alternative fuel sources may also be beneficial in the long run, providing a opportunity to “have their back scratched later” in the form of lower alternative fuel costs or some premium benefit for initial investment.
A final recommendation, and one that should be implemented with the utmost priority, is expanding JetBlue’s domestic route network. While commuter flights in the Northeast United States make up the majority of the route structure, low-cost transcontinental service can be a boon as there are currently very few players in that particular game. By expanding West Coast service, JetBlue can take advantage not only of vacation and business travelers having to fly from coast to coast, but also expand in the lucrative trans-California market. Flights between San Diego, the Los Angeles metropolitan area, and the San Francisco Bay Area as well as Portland, Seattle, Vancouver, and even Las Vegas can capitalise on tourist and business travel (especially flying out of San Diego, where the only destinations are on the East Coast). Midwest and Bread Basket states are also under-serviced (or overflown), missing out on tourist revenue not only to currently-serviced markets like Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, Florida, and the Caribbean, but also to areas like Sandusky, Ohio; Branson, Missouri, and Memphis, Tennessee. To facilitate this, a secondary hub-type facility can be developed at Chicago-O’Hare using a combination of existing capital and available credit which could easily be repaid within ten years based on the revenue generated by these developing markets that will see further economic growth due to enhanced air travel options.